The Manitoba Living With IBD Study //
Vagianos K, Shafer LA, Witges K, Targownik LE, Haviva C, Graff LA, Lix LM, Sexton KA, Sargent M, Bernstein CN. Association between Change in Inflammatory Aspects of Diet and Change in IBD-related Inflammation and Symptoms over 1 Year: The Manitoba Living with IBD Study. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 2020; in press.
We aimed to investigate: (1) the stability of inflammatory aspects of diet over one year among persons with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and (2) the impact of change in diet on changes in inflammation and IBD symptoms over one year. Participants were recruited into the Manitoba Living with IBD Study and completed the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and the Empirical Dietary Inflammatory Index (EDII) were used to calculate the inflammatory potential of the diet. Inflammation was measured by fecal calprotectin (> 250 ug/g). Symptoms were measured by the IBD Symptom Inventory (IBDSI). All measures were obtained at baseline and one year. DII and EDII scores > 0 and < 0 reflect pro- and anti-inflammatory diet, respectively. Variance components analyses were used to describe diet stability. Associations between changes in diet and changes in active inflammation and symptoms were assessed using ordinal logistic regression and multilevel linear regression modelling. 135 participants (66% Crohn’s disease) were included. Approximately one-third of the variance in EDII (36%) and DII (33%) scores was explained by changes in diet over time. Each unit increase in the change in EDII (baseline to follow-up) was associated with a greater odds of fecal calprotectin indicating active inflammation (>250 ug/g; OR=3.1, 95% C.I. 1.02-9.93, p=0.04) and with a rise in IBDSI of 6.7 (95% C.I. 1.0-12.4, p=0.022) (theoretical IBDSI range: 0-81). There was no association between changes in DII and changes in fecal calprotectin or IBDSI.
We concluded that the EDII, but not the DII, may have utility to identify the inflammatory potential of diet. This inflammatory potential can contribute to inflammation and/or disease symptoms in persons with IBD.
Stone J, Shafer LA, Graff LA, Lix L, Witges K, Targownik LE, Haviva C, Sexton K, Bernstein CN. Utility of the MARS-5 in assessing medication adherence in IBD. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 2020; in press.
We aimed to validate the Medication Adherence Report Scale-5 (MARS-5) as a tool for assessing medication adherence in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and determine predictors of medication adherence. One-hundred and twelve (n=112) adults with confirmed IBD, participating in the longitudinal Manitoba Living with IBD Study were eligible. Demographics, IBD type, surgeries, disease activity (using Inflammatory Bowel Disease Symptom Inventory and fecal calprotectin levels), perceived stress and medication use were collected biweekly through online surveys. MARS-5 scores were obtained at baseline and at 1 year. Correlation between medication monitoring data and MARS-5 scores was performed and the optimal MAR-5 cut-off point for adherence assessment determined. Predictors of medication adherence were assessed at both ≥90% and ≥80%. Participants were predominantly female (71.4%); mean age was 42.9 years (SD 12.8), and the majority (67.9%) had Crohn’s disease. Almost half (46.4%) were taking more than one IBD medication, with thiopurines (41.9%) and biologics (36.6%) the most common. Only 17.9% (n=20) were non-adherent at <90% level; of those, 90% (n=18) were using oral medications. The MARS-5 was significantly associated with adherence based on medication monitoring data at baseline (r=0.48) and week 52 (r=0.57). Sensitivity and specificity for adherence ≥80% and ≥90% was maximized at MARS-5 scores of greater than 22 and greater than 23, respectively. Having Crohn’s disease (Odds ratio 4.62; 95% CI 1.36-15.7) was the only significant predictor of adherence.
We concluded that MARS-5 is a useful measure to evaluate adherence in an IBD population. In this highly adherent sample, disease type (Crohn’s disease) was the only predictor of medication adherence.
Witges K, Targownik LE, Haviva C, Walker JR, Graff LA, Sexton K, Lix L, Sargent M, Vagianos K, Bernstein CN. Living With Inflammatory Bowel disease: Protocol for a longitudinal study of factors associated with symptom exacerbations. Journal of Medical Internet Research Research Protocols 2018 (Nov 12); 7(11):e11317.
There has been limited longitudinal research that has comprehensively evaluated possible factors in the exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease symptoms with or without associated inflammation. Evolving Web-based technologies facilitate frequent monitoring of patients' experiences and allow a fine-grained assessment of disease course. We aimed to prospectively identify factors associated with symptom exacerbation and inflammation in IBD including psychological functioning, diet, health behaviors, and medication adherence. Between June 2015 and May 2017, we enrolled adults with IBD, recruited from multiple sources, who had been symptomatically active at least once within the prior 2 years. They completed a Web-based survey every 2 weeks for 1 year and submitted a stool sample at baseline, 26 weeks, and 52 weeks. Any participant reporting a symptom exacerbation was matched to a control within the cohort, based on disease type, sex, age, and time of enrollment; both were sent a supplemental survey and stool collection kit. Biweekly surveys included validated measures of the disease course, psychological functioning, health comorbidities, and medication use. Intestinal inflammation was identified through fecal calprotectin (positive level >250 μg/g stool). There were 155 participants enrolled with confirmed IBD, 66.5% (103/155) with Crohn’s disease and 33.5% (52/155) with ulcerative colitis, of whom 98.7% (153/155) completed the study. Over the 1-year period, 47.7% (74/155) participants experienced a symptom exacerbation. The results of analyses on risk factors for symptom exacerbations are pending. We recruited and retained a longitudinal IBD cohort that will allow the determination of risk factors for symptom exacerbation with and without inflammation. This will increase understanding of symptom exacerbations among persons with IBD.